touches on a plan for the ethnic cleansing of Palestine.1 That same of ethnic cleansing in the former Yugoslavia, and a similar court was. I LG t PRAISE FOR THE ETHNIC CLEANSING OF PALESTINE 'Ilan Pappe is Israel's bravest, most principled, most incisive historian' —John Pilger 'Dan Pappe. , and the ethnic cleansing of Palestine began in early December with a series of Jewish attacks on Palestinian villages and.
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The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine. Ilan Pappe. Oneworld Publications, Oxford, England, By Stephen Lendman nonritemawed.cf Ilan Pappe is an. Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. Starred Review. In his latest work, renowned Israeli The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine - Kindle edition by Ilan Pappe. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. The Palestine-Israel War is known to Israelis as 'The War of Independence', but for Palestinians it will forever be the Nakba, the 'catastrophe'. Alongside.
Pappe documents how it all began in 12 chapters with a short epilogue plus 18 graphic pictures needing no explanation. This review is lengthy so readers will know in detail what Israeli authorities successfully suppressed for decades.
Pappe courageously revealed it in a book begging to be read and discussed by all people of conscience and good faith. They need to take the lead building a groundswell consensus to stand up to this long-festering injustice against defenseless people fighting for their rights and existence against overwhelming odds. Pappe provides them help with his extensive documentation and other suggested reading on the origins of Zionist ideology leading to the ethnic cleansing in the s and thereafter.
Israel and the Palestinian Refugee Problem. Readers are encouraged to explore this issue further with these and other books exposing ugly truths long suppressed in the West and needing to be freely aired. In his preface, Pappe writes about the "Red House" in Tel-Aviv that became headquarters for the Hagana, the dominant Zionist underground paramilitary militia during the British Mandate period in Palestine between and when the Jewish state came into being.
It included forcible expulsion of hundreds of thousands of unwanted Palestinian Arabs in urban and rural areas accompanied by an unknown number of others mass slaughtered to get it done. The goal was simple and straightforward — to create an exclusive Jewish state without an Arab presence by any means including mass-murder.
Once begun, the whole ugly business took six months to complete. It expelled about , people, killed many others, and destroyed villages and 11 urban neighborhoods in cities like Tel-Aviv, Haifa and Jerusalem. The action was a clear case of ethnic cleansing that international law today calls a crime against humanity for which convicted Nazis at Nuremberg were hanged.
So far Israelis have always remained immune from international law even though names of guilty leaders and those charged with implementing their orders are known as well as the crimes they committed. They included cold-blooded mass-murder; destruction of homes, villages and crops; rapes; other atrocities; and massacres of defenseless people given no quarter including women and children.
The crimes were suppressed and expunged from official accounts as Israeli historiography cooked up the myth that Palestinians left voluntarily fearing harm from invading Arab armies. Even with British armed presence still in charge of law and order before its Mandate ended, Jewish forces completed the expulsion of about , Palestinians the Brits did nothing to stop.
It continued unabated because when neighboring Arab states finally intervened, they did so without conviction. They came belatedly and with only small, ill-equipped forces, no match for a superior, well-armed Israeli military easily able to prevail as discussed below.
Pappe notes that ethnic cleansing is well-defined in international law that calls it a crime against humanity. The United Nations used a similar definition in when the UN Commission on Human Rights UNCHR characterized it as the desire of a state or regime to impose ethnic rule on a mixed area using expulsion and other violence including separating men and women, detentions, murder of males of all ages who might become combatants, destruction of houses, and repopulating areas with another ethnic group.
It was left it to a few courageous historians like Ilan Pappe to resurrect events to preserve the truth too important to let die. His invaluable book provides an historic account of what, in fact, happened. It will on this important web site with the courage to publish it. Pappe traces the roots of Zionism to the late s in Central and Eastern Europe "as a national revival movement, prompted by the growing pressure on Jews in those regions to assimilate totally or risk continuing persecution.
So as justification, the myth was created of "a land without people for a people without a land" even though this "empty land" had a flourishing Palestinian Arab population including a small number of Jews.
Zionist leaders wanted a complete dispossession of indigenous Arabs to reestablish the ancient land of Eretz Israel as a Jewish state for Jews alone and got help doing it from the British after Palestine became part of its empire post-WW I. With duplicity, the Brits crafted the Balfour Declaration supporting the notion of a Jewish homeland in Palestine while simultaneously promising indigenous Arabs their rights would be protected and land would be freed from foreign rule.
Palestinian Arabs saw through the scheme wanting no part of it. They strongly opposed further Jewish immigration but to no avail, as their wishes conflicted with British plans for the territory. It set off decades of conflict leading to the establishment of the Jewish state in with British help under their Mandate and neighboring Arab state indifference doing little to prevent it.
Palestinians lost their homeland, their struggle for justice goes on unresolved, and these beleaguered people are virtually isolated from the West and their Arab neighbors preferring alliance with Israel for their own interests that exclude helping Palestinian people get theirs served including a viable independent state free from Israeli occupation.
Even then they fared poorly under British Mandate rule giving Zionist settlers preferential treatment. It led to uprisings in and , the later one lasting three years before being brutally suppressed.
In its wake, Britain expelled Palestinian leaders making their people vulnerable to Jewish forces post-WW II that led to their defeat and subjugation. The sympathetic British Mandate made it possible by helping Jewish settlers transform their paramilitary organization into the Hagana, a name meaning defense. He played a central role and had supreme authority planning the establishment of a Jewish state serving as its "architect" with full control over all security and defense issues in the Jewish community.
His goal was Jewish sovereignty over as much of ancient Palestine as possible achieved the only way he thought possible — by forceable removable of Palestinians from their land so Jews could be resettled in it. To do it, he and other Zionist leaders needed a systematic plan to "cleanse" the land for Jewish habitation only.
Its purpose was to download land used to settle Jewish immigrants that by the end of the British Mandate in amounted to 5. Early on, Ben-Gurion and others knew a more aggressive approach was needed for their colonization plan to succeed. It began with the JNF Arab village inventory that was a blueprint completed by the late s that included the topographic location of each village with detailed information including husbandry, cultivated land, number of trees, quality of fruit, average amount of land per family, number of cars, shop owners, Palestinian clans and their political affiliation, descriptions of village mosques and names of their imams, civil servants and more.
The final inventory update was finished in with lists of "wanted" persons in each village targeted in for search-and-arrest operations with those seized summarily shot on the spot in cold blood. The only remaining obstacle thereafter was the British presence Ben-Gurion knew was on the way out by before it finally ended in May, Ethnic cleansing began in early December, when Palestinians comprised two-thirds of the population and Jews, mostly from war-torn Europe, the other third. By , this solution became the centerpiece of Zionist policy, but it proved too hard for the Brits to resolve and be able to satisfy both sides.
It instead handed the problem to the newly formed UN to deal with before their Mandate ended. It was a recipe for disaster as events unfolded.
Palestinians were justifiably outraged. They were excluded from the decision-making process concluded against their will and at their expense. Pappe explains Ben-Gurion simultaneously accepted and rejected the resolution. He and other Zionist leaders wanted official international recognition of the right of Jews to have their own state in Palestine.
He was also determined to make Jerusalem the Jewish capital, intended final borders to remain flexible wanting to include within them as much future territory as possible, and today Israel is the only country in the world without established borders. Ben-Gurion decided borders would "be determined by force and not by partition resolution.
The process began in early December, with a series of attacks against Palestinian villages and neighborhoods. They were engaged ineffectively from the start on January 9 by units of the first all-Arab volunteer army. It resulted in forced expulsions beginning in mid-February, On March 10, final Plan Dalet was adopted with its first targets being Palestinian urban centers that were all occupied by end of April with about , Palestinians uprooted, displaced or killed including by massacres, the most notorious and remembered being at Deir Yassin even though Tantura may have been the largest.
Deir Yassin was Palestinian land on April 9 when Jewish soldiers burst into the village, machine-gunned houses randomly killing many in them. The remaining villagers were then assembled in one place and murdered in cold blood including children and women first raped and then killed.
Recent research puts the number massacred at 93 including 30 babies , but dozens more were killed in the fighting that ensued making the total number of deaths much higher. The Arab League finally decided on April 30 to intervene militarily but only after the British Mandate ended on May 15, , the day the Jewish Agency declared the establishment of the state of Israel in Palestine.
The US and Soviet Union officially recognized the new state legitimizing it, and on the same day Arab forces entered the territory. On the eve of battle in , Jewish fighting forces were around 50, increasing by summer to 80, They included a small air force, navy and units of tanks, armored cars and heavy artillery.
The army was comprised of the main Hagana force plus elements of the two extremist terrorist groups — the Irgun led by future prime minister and fanatical Arab-hater Menachem Begin and the Stern Gang whose most notorious member was also a future prime minister, Yitzhak Shamir, another extreme racist.
It also included special commando Palmach units, founded in and whose leaders included future Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and noted general and war hero Moshe Dayan.
They faced a hopelessly outmanned and outgunned Palestinian irregular force of about Outside Arab intervention only began on May 15, , five and a half months after UN Resolution was adopted and during which time the Palestinians were defenseless against the Zionist ethnic cleansing onslaught against them.
Arab states waited because they were indifferent, and when they finally acted they sent an inferior force proving no match for the superior Jewish one it faced to be discussed further below. In December, , the Palestinian population numbered 1.
The Jewish minority stood at , Zionist leaders needed a way to dispose of this large number of people "cleansing" the land for Jewish habitation only. Instead it became a systematic campaign of state-sponsored terror against a near-defenseless population unable to withstand the horrific onslaught unleashed against it step by step. It included threats and intimidation, villages attacked including while its inhabitants slept, shooting anything that moved, and blowing up homes with their residents inside plus other violent acts sparing no one, especially fighting-age men and boys who might pose a combat or determined resistance threat.
Ben-Gurion exulted in the progress as events unfolded with comments like: Their plan also included cleansing urban neighborhoods that were attacked beginning with Haifa picked as the first target. It was where 75, Palestinians lived in peace and solidarity with their Jewish neighbors until it ended with the outbreak of violence.
It moved on to other cities including Jerusalem where initial sporadic attacks later became intense. For instance, on February 20, , it headlined a story about an Irgun attack on British servicemen, "Terrorists Murder Soldier in Jerusalem.
Analysis of the newspaper's casualty reports shows that between November and May , it over-reported Arab casualties threefold when its figure of over 3, is compared to British Mandatory statistics. Those who read The Ethnic Cleansing of Palestine will not learn that in the first week after the passage of the U.
In the following month, Arabs killed an additional By March 1, , Jews had been murdered and, by Ben-Gurion's declaration of independence, the total was over 1, Arab snipers attacked Jews in Haifa and other mixed villages. Massacres continued for weeks both inside Palestine and in the neighboring states. It would indeed be strange if Jewish strategists were not doing so. The reality of that time period is one in which Jewish leaders were faced with problems far more urgent and existential than altering the ethnic makeup of certain territories.
There were reports that British forces were evacuating. Villages such as Ishwa and Jaffa hosted foreign fighters from Iraq, Syria, and even Yugoslavia,  and thereby, sacrificed their status as noncombatant areas.
The decision to implement Plan D had little effect on the Arab forces, which continued their assault on all parts of the Jewish yishuv the pre Jewish community in Palestine.
Cobbled together over the course of the decade before Israel's independence, the Haganah lists were not a blueprint but rather an intelligence assessment. In , the Palmach the Haganah's regular fighting force and the Haganah Intelligence Service began to survey villages in order to evaluate their capabilities should hostilities erupt. Jewish pilots also conducted aerial surveys. These intelligence assessments were so parochial that, today, they could serve as a resource for research into Arab village life of the Mandate period.
One representative Haganah intelligence report surveys the hamlet of Beit Umm el-Mais near Jerusalem and reveals that the sons of Hasan al-Jura moved to the ruins of the village around , that the village consisted of one clan, and that its residents were illiterate and had no connections to nearby kibbutzim.
The only terror suspect was Ismail Hamdan, who was involved in the Arab revolt. The village possessed 11 modern rifles divided among 25 men.
The British kept similar intelligence about kibbutzim and Arab villages alike, especially during the Arab Revolt, noting items such as the presence of weaponry and the extent of illegal immigration.